In the European Union (EU), consumers, governments, industry, non-governmental organizations, and the media remain conflicted about the use of agricultural biotechnology. Acceptance varies widely across countries. The EU’s complex policy framework developed under pressure from anti-biotech activists has limited research, development, and production of biotech crops. EU institutions are still working on the way innovative biotechnologies (also called new breeding techniques) should be regulated. A few Member States of the EU are active on this subject but in most countries, the debate has not emerged yet. The United Kingdom’s exit from the EU is unlikely to affect EU policies or trade in the short term.